World Factbook Deluxe Version
A deluxe version of the CIA World Factbook





Bosnia and Herzegovina

Geography



Location


Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea and Croatia


Geographic coordinates


44 00 N, 18 00 E


Map references


Europe


Area


total: 51,197 sq km
land: 51,187 sq km
water: 10 sq km


Area - comparative


slightly smaller than West Virginia


Land boundaries


total: 1,543 km
border countries (3): Croatia 956 km, Montenegro 242 km, Serbia 345 km


Coastline


20 km


Maritime claims


NA


Climate


hot summers and cold winters; areas of high elevation have short, cool summers and long, severe winters; mild, rainy winters along coast


Terrain


mountains and valleys


Elevation


mean elevation: 500 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Maglic 2,386 m


Natural resources


coal, iron ore, bauxite, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, cobalt, manganese, nickel, clay, gypsum, salt, sand, timber, hydropower


Land use


agricultural land: 42.2%
arable land 19.7%; permanent crops 2%; permanent pasture 20.5%
forest: 42.8%
other: 15% (2011 est.)


Irrigated land


30 sq km (2012)


Population - distribution


the northern and central areas of the country are the most densely populated


Natural hazards


destructive earthquakes


Environment - current issues


air pollution from metallurgical plants; sites for disposing of urban waste are limited; water shortages and destruction of infrastructure because of the 1992-95 civil strife; deforestation


Environment - international agreements


party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements


Geography - note


within Bosnia and Herzegovina's recognized borders, the country is divided into a joint Bosniak/Croat Federation (about 51% of the territory) and the Bosnian Serb-led Republika Srpska or RS (about 49% of the territory); the region called Herzegovina is contiguous to Croatia and Montenegro, and traditionally has been settled by an ethnic Croat majority in the west and an ethnic Serb majority in the east







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