World Factbook Deluxe Version
A deluxe version of the CIA World Factbook





Portugal

Geography



Location


Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain


Geographic coordinates


39 30 N, 8 00 W


Map references


Europe


Area


total: 92,090 sq km
land: 91,470 sq km
water: 620 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands


Area - comparative


slightly smaller than Indiana


Land boundaries


total: 1,224 km
border countries (1): Spain 1,224 km


Coastline


1,793 km


Maritime claims


territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Climate


maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south


Terrain


the west-flowing Tagus River divides the country: the north is mountainous toward the interior, while the south is characterized by rolling plains


Elevation


mean elevation: 372 m
elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m


Natural resources


fish, forests (cork), iron ore, copper, zinc, tin, tungsten, silver, gold, uranium, marble, clay, gypsum, salt, arable land, hydropower


Land use


agricultural land: 39.7%
arable land 11.9%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 20%
forest: 37.8%
other: 22.5% (2011 est.)


Irrigated land


5,400 sq km (2012)


Population - distribution


concentrations are primarily along or near the Atlantic coast; both Lisbon and the second largest city, Porto, are coastal cities


Natural hazards


Azores subject to severe earthquakes
volcanism: limited volcanic activity in the Azores Islands; Fayal or Faial (elev. 1,043 m) last erupted in 1958; most volcanoes have not erupted in centuries; historically active volcanoes include Agua de Pau, Furnas, Pico, Picos Volcanic System, San Jorge, Sete Cidades, and Terceira


Environment - current issues


soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas


Environment - international agreements


party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification


Geography - note


Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar







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